Category Archives: Publications

Boundary Cities . Cities as individual and non-local options

What is a MegaMarket doing right next to a farmhouse? The old city centers are specializing and the periphery is booming. Are the new media also partially responsible for this change of centrality?

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The abstract model of ‘Boundary Cities’ is dedicated to this up-to-date question. It is an abstract model of fields of possibility relating to the cities inhabitants; individual alternatives for action in order to achieve an urban infrastructure. Do we order a video by phone, visit a virtual film presentation or do we go ‘really’ into the nearest cinema? Unable to detect and evaluate all the possible alternatives at the same time, we often choose randomly or according to habit.

Depending on the individually available information, the city becomes a situative ambience; a subjective domain of possibility between ‘information peak’ and ‘information outback’. The distribution of the municipal infrastructure changes.

Susan Leigh Star describes the relationships between space and function as unclear and variable. Spaces can be assigned different functions. A unique assignment of function appears to be impossible. For these ambiguous constellations, Leigh Star uses the expression ‘Boundary Object’. Such an object is ambivalent, open and flexible but, at the same time, precisely defined.

Does this also apply to urban centrality? Of course. Ambiguity is the essence of today’s cities. Antonino Saggio has a term for this: ‘new subjectivity’. His corresponding wish is that interactivity contributes towards creating an environment which “addresses the subjectivity of our wishes”.

Centrality is usually described as an impersonal excess of meaning attached to a specific location, apparently firmly entrenched in a local network of ‘central facilities’. With the growing possibilities of transport and communication, however, our individual possibilities of choice are increasing as well. What is locally on offer is supplementing itself more intensively with the non-local. The individual field of possibility is gaining in significance. One’s own location is becoming clearly more perceptible in relation to the situative ‘boundary object’. Can centrality now be understood as an individual, non-local excess of information as well?

”Boundary Cities’ are abstract city sets which, in this context, model different possible cases. There are two polar extremes. Either we are able to reach all the possible facilities with all means of transport or we do not reach any of these facilities with any means of transport. In the first case, we are in the ‘information peak’; in the second case, in the ‘information outback’. Somewhere in between, an enormous number of individual possibilities unfold. If we decide – purely randomly – in favor of one possible alternative, there is normal distribution. Exactly half of all possible cases are the most frequent; we are in a state of ‘information balance’. This distribution is astonishingly similar to the present picture of our cities.

This scenario simulates the free and situation-related formation of centrality, comparable with a purely market-economy development. If one prefers the social market economy, however, the question arises as to what are the future perspectives regarding the general satisfaction of our needs.

HÖHL, Wolfgang (2000): Cities of the Media – City Planning and Communication Theory, Passagen Editors, Vienna / Austria. With a preface by VALIE EXPORT
STAR, Susan Leigh (1989): The Structure of III-Structured Solutions – Boundary Objects and Heterogenous Distributed Problem Solving . Distributed Artificial Intelligence; London 1989, pp. 37 – 54.
SAGGIO, Antonino (2001): Neue Subjektivität. Architektur zwischen Kommunikation und Information in: digital / real. Blobmeister. erste gebaute Projekte; Hrsg. P.C. Schmal. Birkhäuser 2001, S. 28f.

Now available in the library catalogue of Hannover Leibniz University!

140915_coverHow do media change our environment? This book is a literal experiment on media and design. It broaches the issues of systems and space, element and structure as well as order and information.

From the analogue camera evolution up to augmented reality applications, the development from the producer up to the so called “produser” is shown. two anecdotes, reffering to a lecture of peter eisenman depict the impact of media on space and architecture.

This book originates from text fragments and sketches from the early nineties of the last century during the works on “MedienStädte” (2000) published by Passagen Verlag in Vienna.

In reciprocal interaction with the recipient, something new and undesigned should occur. Emergence and interactivity should be perceptible, as they were in the so called “New Media” in everyday life of the early nineties. This book is intended for all interested people. Primarily it was made for architects, media and game designers.

This e-book was published on November 8th, 2014.

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Now available in the library catalogue of Hannover Leibniz University

Augmented Reality for Architects and Engineers using Open-Source Software

HÖHL, Wolfgang (2009): Interaktive Ambiente mit Open-Source-Software – 3D-Walk-Throughs und Augmented Reality für Architekten mit Blender 2.43, DART 3.0 and ARToolKit 2.72, SpringerWienNewYork

HÖHL, Wolfgang (2009): Interactive Environments with Open-­Source Software – 3D ­Walk­ Throughs und Augmented Reality for Architects with Blender 2.43, DART 3.0 and ARToolKit 2.72, Springer Verlag, Vienna/New York

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Out now! Efficient Virtual Collaboration using 3D Software

Kurztitel:Wolfgang Höhl (2015): Network Structures in Virtual Environments

How does virtual collaboration perform efficiently? This publication shows how to plan and operate efficient collaborative virtual environments. Five different use cases of a collaborative virtual environment are developed. For these five models network evaluation parameters are determined.
These use cases are evaluated using the three fundamental criteria of quality, time and cost. Network theory indeed does help us understand collaborative virtual environments. Network simulation allows for the manipulating of the elements and gives a view on changes in the structures and behaviour of the whole network.

Now avaliable at Amazon.com
150829_AT_02 150829_CH_02 150829_DE_02 150829_UK_02 150829_US_02 150829_CA_01

Efficient Virtual Collaboration using 3D Software

Kurztitel:Wolfgang Höhl (2015): Network Structures in Virtual Environments

How does virtual collaboration perform efficiently? This publication shows how to plan and operate efficient collaborative virtual environments. Five different use cases of a collaborative virtual environment are developed. For these five models network evaluation parameters are determined.
These use cases are evaluated using the three fundamental criteria of quality, time and cost. Network theory indeed does help us understand collaborative virtual environments. Network simulation allows for the manipulating of the elements and gives a view on changes in the structures and behaviour of the whole network.

Now avaliable at Amazon.com
150829_AT_02 150829_CH_02 150829_DE_02 150829_UK_02 150829_US_02 150829_CA_01

REAL CORP 2013 . CG Mixed Reality Architectural Workspace

150901_RealCorp2013_01BEHMEL, Andreas, HÖHL, Wolfgang et. al. (2013):
CG Mixed Reality Architectural Workspace

in: SCHRENK, Manfred et. al.: Proceedings of REAL CORP 2013 – 18th International Conference on Urban Planning and Regional Development in the Information Society, 20 – 23 May, Rome / Italy, S. 149 – 158.

 

 

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Network Structures in Virtual Environments – new eBook!

Kurztitel:Wolfgang Höhl (2015): Network Structures in Virtual Environments

Does network theory help to understand collaborative virtual environments? Which ideal network model is best suited for a collaborative virtual environment? Are “scale-free networks” better than “random” or “hierarchical networks”? What does modularity, efficiency and economy mean in terms of network qualities? How can spatial centrality and urban design tools be seen in this respect? This paper investigates these issues using the depiction of a collaborative virtual environment as an abstract network.

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It was demonstrated that the interpretation of all five analyzed use cases remain inconclusive in some terms. But there are certain interesting tendencies.

Simulation and virtual environments meet in many issues. To illustrate, this paper will take a closer look at the philosophy of science, simulation and scientific modelling. We will learn that simulation is an interdisciplinary technique and collaborative virtual environments are a part of general simulation systems. Simulation itself works in three stages and supports the innovation process in its early stage. Qualities, advantages, disadvantages and application areas of simulation will be shown. Then we will have a closer look at the structure and principles of collaborative virtual environments. It is shown how time, space and organization influence the usage and behaviour of a collaborative virtual environment. General evaluation criteria of real-time systems are shown. Ongoing applications and projects will illustrate topical application areas.

Network theory does indeed help us understand collaborative virtual environments. One can depict all elements and relations of a virtual environment in an adequate and operational manner. Network simulation allows for the manipulating of the elements and gives a view on changes in the structures and behaviour of the whole network. Simulation allows us to go backward and forward in time, explore possibilities and understand scenarios of virtual environments, diagnose problems and constraints, understand behaviour and processes, find consensus and prepare for change, and gives possibilities for visualizing how to proceed.